Collective bargaining is a constitutional right in the Philippines, and one of the fundamental principles in the international community. Collective bargaining has different levels from a single employer to multiple employers negotiating with one or more unions. In the Philippines, the number of workers covered by collective bargaining agreements is decreasing and are attributable to the following factors: (1) majority of establishments are micro and small enterprises; (2) the rise in non-standard forms of employment; (3) unions in the Philippines only cover wage and salary workers;
Rapid technological advances, urban congestion/traffic and the increased desire to balance family and work life are few of the many factors that contribute to the growing popularity of off-site work arrangements. While there are multitude of terms such as teleworking, telecommuting or work-from-home to refer to off-site work, the overarching theme is that work is being done away from the employer’s premises. In this paper, the author aims to describe this type of work arrangement, in terms of occurrence, work patterns, and its possible labor market implications.
Current data reflect alarming gender gaps in unionization. In traditionally male-dominated sectors such as manufacturing and construction, the proportion of women who are unionized still pales in comparison to men. Even in the wholesale and retail trade and the food and accommodation sectors where the bulk of women workers is concentrated, there are still more men becoming union members. Only in the education, health or social work and financial sectors are there more women than men in unions, although it should be noted that these are sectors typically associated with women by gender stereotyping.