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Philippine Standard Time


Time and again, economic crisis proves to be detrimental most to migrant labor. They are often the very first target of massive layoffs and deteriorated working and living conditions as a consequence of the contraction of private companies and collapse of economies in destination countries. Moreover, they usually bear the brunt of discriminatory policies of their host countries and of xenophobic sentiments of native populations most pronounced during economic crisis situations.

Current government policy guidelines have not fully elaborated the difference between “Return” and “Reintegration”. These stages of migration remain to be treated as one and the same. However, return and reintegration are two different concepts. Return may only refer to the physical return of a migrant to their country of origin while reintegration is a process to which the migrant is reintroduced and reinserted to the community under three (3) identified dimensions: Economic stability, Social Networks and Psycho-social. Return may be for everyone, but reintegration may not be ready for all returnees (Bernas, 2016). It is further defined as the continuing process after “return migration” that generally contributes to the sustainability of return through various dimension of reintegration in terms of economic stability, social networks, and psychosocial stability (Ruben et al).